מושב דמוגרפיה: מגדר, פריון ותמותה
קהילת הגירה ודמוגרפיה
יו"ר: עליזה לוין
ד"ר עליזה לוין, החוג לסוציולוגיה, אוניברסיטת חיפה. תחומי עניין: דמוגרפיה של המשפחה, נישואין וגירושין ותהליכי משפחה, זקנה ומשפחה, עוני, מדיניות רווחה.
Gender Egalitarianism and Outsourcing: Complementary or Competing Strategies for Addressing Work-Family Conflict | Barbara Okun and Liat Raz-Yurovich
Women’s role incompatibility is perceived as one of the major causes of the decline in fertility levels and of women’s lower labor force participation levels in developed countries. Previous studies have suggested two main strategies to reduce feelings of role incompatibility among women – a more significant contribution of male partners to unpaid work in the domestic sphere and the outsourcing of domestic labor. In the current research, we ask whether use of these strategies: (1) differs by partners’ gender role attitudes; (2) is complementary (partners use domestic services and equally divide the residual unpaid work between them) or competing (despite outsourcing, the female partner still bears a larger share of domestic labor); and (3) differs by the domestic task (childcare vs. housework). We address these questions using Wave 1 (2005-2006) and Wave 2 (2008-2009) of the German samples of the Generations and Gender Program. For the analyses of housework, we focus on a subsample of married and cohabiting couples for whom the main respondent is aged 25-54. For the analyses of childcare, we focus on a subsample of couples with at least one child aged 0-5. We exploit detailed information on the extent to which various, specific tasks associated with housework and childcare are shared between the partners and/or outsourced. Our models will also consider the labor market and other socioeconomic characteristics of partners. Our research will contribute to the literature by taking a theoretical perspective which encompasses different strategies for addressing women’s role incompatibility, and by examining empirically combinations of strategies using a rich data panel from a country characterized as a welfare state that is currently experiencing a shift to a “dual earner – dual carer” society.
Barbara S. Okun is Professor, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Dept. of Sociology, Demographic Studies. Barbara is a family and social demographer. Her most recent research has focused on fertility in the context of the extended family, as well as on men’s roles in domestic labor.
Dr. Liat Raz-Yurovich, Department of Sociology and Anthropology and Federmann School of Public Policy & Government, Assistant Professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Does Outsourcing of Domestic Work Reduce Gender Inequality in Labor Force Participation within Households? - A Couple-Level Panel Analysis | Liat Raz-Yurovich
The time devoted to unpaid work in the domestic sphere leads to penalties in terms of time devoted to paid work and these penalties are more prominent for women than for men. The outsourcing of domestic work to service providers may serve as a mechanism to reduce the burden of unpaid work and to increase the labor force participation rates of men and women. This study takes a longitudinal couple-level approach and analyzes whether the employment status and the work hours of male and female partners in households that employed a domestic worker changed after vs. before employing the domestic worker, and whether these changes translate into reduced gender inequality in labor force participation within households. Using an analytic sample of 85,282 married heterosexual Jewish couples aged 25-64 from the harmonized panel database of the Israeli Labor Force Survey for the years 2000-2017, and by employing Fixed-Effects Two-Stage Least Squares model, we find that outsourcing affects employment at the intensive but not at the extensive margins, and only among highly-educated women. Moreover, we find that this increase in highly-educated women’s work hours is translated into a reduced gender gap in work hours, no matter their partner’s level of education.
ד"ר ליאת רז-יורוביץ היא דמוגרפית של המשפחה ומרצה בכירה במחלקה לסוציולוגיה ואנתרופולוגיה (מגמת דמוגרפיה) ובביה"ס למדיניות ציבורית, באוניברסיטה העברית. במחקריה עוסקת ד"ר רז-יורוביץ בקשרים ההדדיים שבין כלכלת משפחה לשינויים במבנה המשפחה הגרעינית, כדוגמת נישואין, גירושין ופריון. כמו כן, מחקריה עוסקים באי-שוויון מגדרי בשוק העבודה ובתוך משקי בית, בשינוי קוהורטי ותקופתי בעמדות וכן באופן בו מדיניות ציבורית משפיעה על תחומים אלה ומושפעת מהם בעצמה.
Contraceptive Method Mix and Unmet Need in Low Fertility Countries: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis | Inbar Eliav-Paran
Despite the wide range of contraceptive options, many women and men in low fertility, rich societies who wish to avoid pregnancy often do not practice contraception, discontinue their method due to dissatisfaction, or use it inconsistently, and ultimately remain exposed to an unwanted pregnancy or abortion. This gap between pregnancy intentions and actual contraceptive and sexual behavior is the unmet need for contraception. Research on unmet need typically focused on why individuals in developing economies who wish to avoid pregnancy do not use contraception. This study is refocusing attention on the high rates of contraceptive discontinuation, unintended pregnancies, and abortions in rich societies to inquire- why individuals who do not intend to get pregnant discontinue, use methods inconsistently, or not at all? By operationalizing the expanded framework of unmet need, this study hypothesizes that a limited contraceptive method mix-the portfolio of existing method options and traits-is associated with higher rates of unmet need in European societies. Data from the Generations and Gender Survey (2004–2011) covering eleven European countries are used. Logistic regression analysis with cluster correction for within country correlation are performed. The findings demonstrate that the proportion of individuals with unmet need (i.e., who wish to avoid pregnancy or with unwanted pregnancy, fecund, sexually active but not using, have discontinued or experienced failure with contraceptives) varied by country, with high rates despite widespread use of highly effective methods (12% [France] 17% [Germany]) 43% [Georgia]), surpassing some developing regions. The estimated percentage of unmet need among individuals in Europe is far higher when contraceptive discontinuation, failure and unwanted pregnancies are included. Against common assumptions, no clear empirical association can be established between heavy use of hormonal methods at the country level and a lower level of unmet need among women. Broadening the portfolio of contraceptives could improve contraceptive choice.
Inbar earned her B.A in International Relations and History. She is an MA student at the department of Sociology with a specialization in Gender studies at the Hebrew University. Her thesis explores contraceptive technologies and unmet needs in reproductive health. Inbar gained experience as academic coordinator and teaching assistant at the Huji Innovate center for Entrepreneurship, as Health policy research assistant, at the Knesset, the Israel Innovation Authority and AtoBe Startup accelerator.
The casualties of war: An excess mortality estimate of lives lost in the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict | Ariel Karlinsky
Who and how many died in the 2020 Karabakh War? With limited evidence provided by authorities, media outlets, and human rights organizations, still little is known about the death toll caused by the 44-days conflict in and around Nagorno-Karabakh. This paper provides a first assessment of the human cost of the war. Using age-sex vital registration data from Armenia, Azerbaijan, and the de facto Republic of Artsakh/Nagorno-Karabakh, we difference the 2020 observed mortality values from expected deaths based on trends in mortality between 2015-2019 to offer sensible estimates of excess mortality resulting from the conflict. We compare and contrast our findings with neighboring peaceful countries with similar mortality patterns and socio-cultural background, and discuss them against the backdrop of the concurrent first wave of Covid-19. We estimate that the war led to almost 6,500 excess deaths among people aged 15-44. Nearly 2,800 excess losses occurred in Armenia, 3,400 in Azerbaijan and 310 in de facto Artsakh. Deaths were highly concentrated among late adolescent and young adult males, suggesting that most excess mortality was directly related to combat. Beyond the human tragedy, for small countries like Armenia and Azerbaijan, such loss of young men represents a considerable long-term cost for future demographic, economic and social development.
מר אריאל קרלינסקי, בעל תואר ראשון בכלכלה וסטטיסטיקה מהאוניברסיטה העברית תואר שני בכלכלה במסלול המחקרי מהאוניברסיטה העברית דוקטורנט באוניברסיטה העברית עוסק בכלכלה פוליטית, דמוגרפיה, בריאות והממשק ביניהם. חבר וועדת המומחים של ארגון הבריאות העולמי להערכת התמותה מקורונה.